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        Arctic should not be battlefield of geopolitical rivalry

        北極不應成為地緣博弈的“戰場”

        來源:China Military Online責任編輯:Wang Xinjuan
        2021-05-25 17:08

        彭況 By Peng Kuang

        5月20日,第12屆北極理事會部長級會議在冰島首都雷克雅未克閉幕。俄羅斯外長拉夫羅夫與美國國務卿布林肯利用這一多邊舞臺,于19日晚在雷克雅未克舉行了會晤。這是美國拜登政府上臺以來兩國外長首次面對面會晤。

        The 12th Arctic Council Ministerial meeting closed in Reykjavik, the capital city of Iceland, on May 20. Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov and US Secretary of State Antony Blinken took advantage of this multilateral stage and held a meeting in Reykjavik on the evening of May 19. This is the first face-to-face meeting between Russian and American top diplomatic officials after the Biden administration took office.

        在一片矛盾之中,俄美雙方選擇“北極理事會”作為會談的場合,倒也映襯出“北極”這塊特殊的地理區域在國際關系中所蘊含的多層特殊意義。

        With rising tensions, choosing the "Arctic Council" ministerial meeting as the venue for the talks between Russia and the US also reflects the special significance in multiple ways of "the Arctic" in international relations.

        首先,這是一塊地緣博弈的“戰場”。對北極這片區域,俄美雙方都不陌生。冷戰時期,從天空到水下,這里曾經是軍事對抗的前沿陣地——事實上,直到現在也是。由于地球是一個球體,所以在兩國之間,最近的導彈飛行路線既不是經大西洋也不是經太平洋,而是從北極上空飛過。從北冰洋厚厚的冰層下破殼而出的彈道導彈核潛艇,能夠輕而易舉地威懾世界上絕大多數發達國家,畢竟在地理上它們大多位于北半球。從軍事斗爭的角度,俄美都不敢輕視北極的地位和作用。

        To start with, the Arctic serves as the "battlefield" of geopolitical competition. Both Russia and the US are no strangers to this area. During the Cold War, this area, from the sky to the water, was once the frontier of military confrontation. In fact, it still is. Since the earth is a sphere, the closest missile flight path between the two countries is neither via the Atlantic nor the Pacific, but over the North Pole. The ballistic missile nuclear submarine that can break out of the thick ice of the Arctic Ocean can easily deter most developed countries in the world. After all, most of them are geographically located in the northern hemisphere. From the perspective of military struggle, Russia and the US dare not underestimate the status and role of the Arctic.

        1986年10月,美蘇領導人就曾在雷克雅未克會晤,針對美蘇大幅削減核武器的提議展開探討。包括本次會談在內,兩個軍事大國在北極地區的一舉一動,成為了觀測世界形勢變化的“溫度計”。

        In October 1986, the leaders of the US and the Soviet Union met in Reykjavik to discuss the proposal to drastically reduce nuclear weapons. Each move of the two military powers, including the meeting in the Arctic region this time, has become a "thermometer" for observing changes in the world situation.

        其次,這是經貿往來的“新舞臺”。北極地區在近年來越來越受到關注,總的原因還是,全球變暖導致海冰大面積融化,使得一些新的航海線路逐漸成為商業上可行的方案。

        Second, the Arctic is a "new stage" for economic and trade exchanges. The Arctic region has received more and more attention in recent years. The overall reason is that global warming has caused a large area of sea ice to melt, making some new navigation routes commercially viable options.

        然而,北極航線的商業開發前景受制于國際局勢的“大氣候”。美國所謂“自由航行”的無理姿態也延伸到了北冰洋海域??紤]到地理因素,加拿大和俄羅斯都希望針對相應的航道采取更為嚴格的管理措施。但美國完全從自身角度出發提出種種無理要求,使得北極航線的商業前景在八字都還沒看到一撇時就已經蒙上了陰影。

        However, the prospects for commercial development of the Arctic route are subject to the "big climate" of the international situation. The unreasonable posture in the name of the so-called "freedom of navigation" of the US has also extended to the seas of the Arctic Ocean. Considering geographical factors, both Canada and Russia hope to adopt more stringent management measures for the corresponding waterways. However, the US put forward all kinds of unreasonable demands completely from its own perspective, which has cast a shadow over the commercial prospects of the Arctic route before it was even planned.

        最后,盡管處于極寒之地,但北極依然是我們人類的“棲息之地”。1200多萬平方千米的北冰洋,面積比歐洲都大;北極圈內2100余萬平方千米的總面積,占到了地球總表面積的1/25。北極理事會成立時擁有8個成員國,時至今日,已經發展成為有著越來越多的近北極國家、相關國際組織與機構以各種形式參與其中的、最受重視的北極合作機制。

        Finally, despite being in an extremely cold place, the Arctic is still a human "habitation place" . With an area of more than 12 million square kilometers, the Arctic Ocean is larger than the size of Europe. The total area of more than 21 million square kilometers in the Arctic Circle accounts for 1/25 of the total surface area of the earth. The Arctic Council had eight member states when it was established. Today, it has developed into the most valued Arctic cooperation mechanism with an increasing number of "Near-Arctic States", related international organizations and institutions participating in various forms.

        人類只有一個地球,地球也只有一個北極,它不應成為地緣博弈的“戰場”。無論是攸關北極的應對氣候變化方案,還是多邊框架下的國際合作,能夠對人類命運共同體作出哪些真正的貢獻,這才是值得我們去關注的。

        Human beings have only one earth, and the earth has only one Arctic. The Arctic should not become the "battlefield" of geopolitical rivalry. Whether it is a climate change plan that is vital to the Arctic or international cooperation under a multilateral framework, we need to pay attention to the real contributions made to the building of a community of shared future for mankind.

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